Proyecto 2011-10

How might we improve maternal health with mobile technologies for low-income countries?

OpenIDEO has partnered with Oxfam and Nokia to explore how mobile technologies can be used to improve maternal health (particularly in pregnancy and childbirth). We’re asking you, the OpenIDEO community, to come up with inspirations and concepts around improving the knowledge and access to maternal health services, specifically where mobile technologies can be used as a tool to aid this. We’re focusing our solutions in low-income countries, such as Burkina Faso and Bangladesh. In many such countries fees for health care prevent millions of mothers from seeking the professional care they need or where under-investment means health works or medicines are unavailable.

1,000 women die every day in pregnancy and childbirth – adding up to more than 350,000 deaths each year. Over 90% are preventable.

In 2000 world leaders set themselves a set of targets to significantly reduce poverty around the world, MDG 5, to reduce maternal deaths by three quarters, is the most off-track of all the MDGs.

The causes of maternal mortality are multi-faceted and deeply engrained in gender inequalities and decades of under investment in public health care.


Cost of healthcare – User fees for health care push 100 million people into poverty each year and block access to skilled birth attendance for those too poor to pay.

Healthcare personnel stretched – Just 1 more midwife could save the lives of 219 women. 700,000 more Midwives are needed to achieve the Millennium Development Goal to reduce maternal deaths by 75% by 2015. Overall the World Health Organisation has estimated that over 4 million more health workers are needed around the world.

General access to information and care during pregnancy and childbirth – Women need more access to basic information on safe motherhood and to their right to decent quality health care based on need and not ability to pay. Information can help empower women to claim their rights and protect the health of themselves and their unborn child.

Gender inequality – Women and girls have less access to education, assets, services, and security, in general – 12 percent of women suffer domestic violence during pregnancy – WHO multi country study, 2005.

Access to education in general – Women who complete primary education marry later, exercise better birth control and are more likely to use modern health services – K. Watkins, Oxfam Education Report, Oxfam GB, 2001

In the Inspiration phase, we’re asking you to look around and tell us what inspirations are already out there around this issue…

What are some existing products/services/campaigns (anywhere in the World) that are improving health (any type of health issue, not just maternal) in the community?

What are some of your own experiences with maternal health and where did the system succeed or fail for you? How could it be improved?

What are some innovative uses of mobile technology already out there that we could be inspired by?

In the Concepting phase, we’ll ask the community to contribute their own mobile solutions to improve maternal health. These could be new products, services, campaigns, systems.

We’ll ask you to think a little deeper about the feasibility of your concept from technology and business perspectives.

Once the Concepting phase is completed, we’ll ask the community to return and applaud their favourite concepts. The top concepts will also be evaluated more thoroughly for criteria like business viability and technological feasibility.

Oxfam is a vibrant global movement of passionate, dedicated people overcoming poverty together. Since our creation in 1942 Oxfam has consistently been at the forefront of identifying new ways to tackle poverty. People power drives everything we do. From saving lives and developing projects that put poor people in charge of their lives and livelihoods, to campaigning for change that lasts.

To have the biggest possible impact on the lives of poor people worldwide, Oxfam concentrates on three interlinked areas of work:

Emergency response
People need help in an emergency – fast. We save lives, swiftly delivering aid, support and protection; and we help communities develop the capacity to cope with future crises.

Development work
Poor people can take control, solve their own problems, and rely on themselves – with the right support. We fund long-term work to fight poverty in thousands of communities worldwide.

Campaigning for change
Poverty isn’t just about lack of resources. In a wealthy world it’s about bad decisions made by powerful people. Oxfam campaigns hard, putting pressure on leaders for real lasting change.

Mobile phones used to be toys for yuppies. Now, they have become tools for development. Nokia’s aim is to see that the potential of mobile phones is fulfilled.
The goal for this challenge is a happy, healthy mother and child. Even though the challenge is structured around mobile technology, our view is that it isn’t really about the technology, it’s about what you do with it. Of course, that’s a marketing slogan but it’s also true.

At Nokia, we are very optimistic about the potential of mobile communication in health, whether or not we’re involved. We are also mindful of the old saying, ‘when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail.’ So, working with Oxfam and a broader community here is a good way to put mobiles in perspective as one tool among many, not a magic bullet. We look forward to hearing from you.

Fases de desarrollo:
1. Definición de dominio (scope / background research).

a. Inspiraciones: selección de proyectos/productos/servicios/campañas en cualquier parte del mundo que mejoren las condiciones de la comunidad?
b. Exploración: Visitas / revisión de fuentes secundarias (personas, internet).
c. Muestreo: Documentos que registren el proceso (si aplica) .
d. Extracción y registro de los atributos claves que definen la experiencia y sus diferentes componentes.
e. Estudio de las inspiraciones aportadas por otras personas en el IDEO Challenge, participación y seguimiento en la discusión en el foro.


Visualización del dominio
Demarcación de un campo de acción.
Criterios de una experiencia exitosa.

2. Observación.

a. Etnografía: En el campo de acción definido en el apartado anterior, encontrar dos usuarios extremos (máximo y mínimo), dos usuarios promedio. Aplicar el toolkit IDEO.
b. Inventario: Documentar la ecología de elementos que rodean la experiencia existente. Puede usarse uno de los dos modelos que sea relevante

POEMS (People – Objects – Eviroment – Messages – Services).

AEIOU (Activities – Enviroment – Interactions – Objects – Users).


Narrativa visual (storyboard) de experiencias existentes.
Criterios de una experiencia exitosa.

3. Clasificación y análisis.

a. Mapa del proyecto: Visualizar las relaciones existentes y posibles entre la experiencia existente y los resultados de la etnografía.
b. Identificación de elementos relevantes. Usar modelo POINTS (Problems – Oportunities – Insights – Necessities – Themes)
c. Jerarquizacion y clustering por experiencias existentes. Usar el polígono de Shedroff (Meaning – Breadth – Intensity – Duration – Triggers – Interaction)
d. Selección de la experiencia que será intervenida. Usar criterios de éxito identificados en los apartados anteriores.


Mapa del proyecto simplificado.
Polígonos de experiencia simplificados

Polígono de experiencia seleccionada en detalle

4. Prototipo de experiencia.


a. Replique las variables claves de la experiencia con los siguientes criterios:
– Mínimo de recursos.
– Portátil.
– Para ser usado en el salón de clase por cualquiera de los presentes de modo tal que pueda comprender e interiorizar la vivencia del usuario.


Documentación de resultados en video.
Prototipos Lo Fi.
Registro comentado de los mismos.

5. Storyboard / Videoescenario.

6. Prototipado. Dos iteraciones.


El grupo decide el tipo de prototipo que más se amolde a sus necesidades.


Registro comentado de los resultados.

7. Documentación y comunicación.

– Prototipo Final
– Pecha kucha
– Documento del proyecto.
– Videoescenario/photoshoot.
– Racional.
– Gastos.
– Archivos digitales.


Design with Intent: 101 Patterns for Influencing Behaviour Through Design by Dan Lockton with David Harrison & Neville A. Stanton

AIGA, Cheskin. “An Ethnography Premier”. Tomado de la pagina web de AIGA en agosto de 2008.

IDEO’s Human Factors team. (2003) “IDEO Method Cards: 51 Ways to Inspire Design”. William Stout Architectural Books. Palo Alto.

IDEO. (2009) “Human centered design toolkit: A free innovation guide for NGOs and Social Enterprises”. 2nd Edition.

Illinois Institute of Technology. “User Centered Design Process”. Chunlun Lee. Design Methots. December 2005. Chicago. userCenteredDesign.pdf
Information Design Source Book
Institute for Information Design Japan (Author, Editor)
Birkhäuser Architecture; 1 edition (April 27, 2001)

Information Graphics: Innovative Solutions in Contemporary Design ( está en la Biblioteca en español )
Peter Wildbur
Michael Burke

Jacobson, Robert (Editor), “Information Interaction Design: A Unified Field Theory of Design”,
MIT Press, 2000
( Está en la Biblioteca)

Shedroff Nathan, “Experience Design”, Waite Group Press, 2001.

Tufte, Edward R. “Envisioning Information”, Graphics Press, 1990
Johansen Oscar, Teoría general de Sistemas ( está en Eduardos en el paquete 22, lectura 1)